AAP Clinical Report: Oxygen Targeting in ELBW Infants

Published in Pediatrics, Vol. 138, Issue 2, August 2016

ABSTRACT: The use of supplemental oxygen plays a vital role in the care of the critically ill preterm infant, but the unrestricted use of oxygen can lead to unintended harms, such as chronic lung disease and retinopathy of prematurity. An overly restricted use of supplemental oxygen may have adverse effects as well. Ideally, continuous monitoring of tissue and cellular oxygen delivery would allow clinicians to better titrate the use of supplemental oxygen, but such monitoring is not currently feasible in the clinical setting. The introduction of pulse oximetry has greatly aided the clinician by providing a relatively easy and continuous estimate of arterial oxygen saturation, but pulse oximetry has several practical, technical, and physiologic limitations. Recent randomized clinical trials comparing different pulse oximetry targets have been conducted to better inform the practice of supplemental oxygen use. This clinical report discusses the benefits and limitations of pulse oximetry for assessing oxygenation, summarizes randomized clinical trials of oxygen saturation targeting, and addresses implications for practice.

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DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-1576

Cummings JJ, Polin RA, AAP COMMITTEE ON FETUS AND NEWBORN. Oxygen Targeting in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants. Pediatrics. 2016;138(2):e20161576