To systematically review the prevalence of antenatal depression and anxiety in women hospitalized in an antepartum unit for obstetric complications.
We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and ClinicalTrials.gov for English-language articles published from database inception through March 2020.
METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION:
We included cross-sectional, cohort, case–control, quasi-experimental, and randomized controlled studies from any country that reported the proportion of pregnant women with an elevated depression or anxiety screening scale or diagnostic interview during antepartum hospitalization of any duration and at any gestational age.
TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS:
We identified 8,799 articles and reviewed 79, 39 of which were included in a systematic review and 18 in meta-analysis of the primary outcome. Two raters independently assessed quality of individual studies using a 14-question tool. A random effects meta-analysis model was used to estimate prevalence and 95% CI of depression or anxiety. Heterogeneity was examined with the I2 test, and funnel plots were used to assess publication bias. After meta-analysis, the estimated prevalence of depression was 34% (95% CI 27–41%) and of anxiety 29% (95% CI 16–43%). There was expected substantial clinical and methodologic heterogeneity between studies that persisted even after planned a priori subgroup analyses and meta-regression. Even so, the direction of effect was consistent across studies. No publication bias was found.
The current meta-analysis suggests that one in three women hospitalized during pregnancy for obstetric complications report clinical levels of depression or anxiety symptoms, twice the reported prevalence of antenatal depression or anxiety in the general obstetric population.
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: