Pregnant women should be advised of the significant perinatal risks associated with tobacco use, including orofacial clefts, fetal growth restriction, placenta previa, abruptio placentae, preterm prelabor rupture of membranes, low birth weight, increased perinatal mortality, ectopic pregnancy, and decreased maternal thyroid function. Children born to women who smoke during pregnancy are at an increased risk of respiratory infections, asthma, infantile colic, bone fractures, and childhood obesity. Pregnancy influences many women to stop smoking, and approximately 54% of women who smoke before pregnancy quit smoking directly before or during pregnancy. Smoking cessation at any point in gestation benefits the pregnant woman and her fetus. The greatest benefit is observed with cessation before 15 weeks of gestation. Although cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product in pregnancy, alternative forms of tobacco use, such as e-cigarettes or vaping products, hookahs, and cigars, are increasingly common. Clinicians should advise cessation of tobacco products used in any form and provide motivational feedback. Although counseling and pregnancy-specific materials are effective cessation aids for many pregnant women, some women continue to use tobacco products. Clinicians should individualize care by offering psychosocial, behavioral, and pharmacotherapy interventions. Available cessation-aid services and resources, including digital resources, should be discussed and documented regularly at prenatal and postpartum follow-up visits.
ACOG Committee Opinion No. 807: Tobacco and Nicotine Cessation During Pregnancy